Vegetable Pest Management - A Guide for Commercial Applicators - Category 1B (E2160)

Vegetable Pest Management - A Guide for Commercial Applicators - Category 1B (E2160)

The text about vegetable pest management for COMMERCIAL Applicators - Category 1B.

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INTRODUCTION

How to Use This Manual

This manual contains the information needed to become a certified commercial applicator in Category 1B, Vegetables. This manual is intended for use in combination with the Pesticide Applicator Core Training Manual (Extension bulletin E-2195), available through the Michigan State University Bulletin Office. However, this manual would also be useful to anyone interested in learning more about vegetable pest management.

Category 1B, Vegetables, covers the management and control of common pests in asparagus, carrots, celery, cucurbits, cole crops, onions, potatoes, snap beans, sweet corn and tomatoes. The manual presents basic scientific information on pest life cycles and emphasizes protecting non-target organisms and preventing the development of resistance in pests.

The Category 1B certification exam is based on information found in this booklet. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives that help you focus on what you should understand from each chapter. The table of contents helps you identify important topics and understand how they relate to one another through the organization of headings and subheadings. As you prepare for the exam, read each chapter and answer the review questions. These questions are not on the certification exam, but are provided to help you prepare for the exam. Questions on the exam will pertain directly to the learning objectives.

The appendices and glossary, including an answer key (Appendix A), at the end of this manual provide supplemental information that will help you understand the topics covered in the chapters. Terms throughout the manual text that are bold or italicized can also be found in the glossary.

This certification manual benefits the applicator and the general public. By learning how to handle pesticides correctly, applicators can protect themselves, others, and the environment from pesticide misuse. For more specific information on how to become a certified applicator in Michigan, refer to the beginning of the core manual (E-2195) or the Michigan Department of Agriculture’s Web site or call the MDA at 1-800-292-3939.

CHAPTER 1: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Integrated Pest Management

Field Scouting, Monitoring

Economic Thresholds

Control Strategies

Cultural Control

Biological Control

Chemical Control

Review Questions

CHAPTER 2: MINIMIZING PESTICIDE IMPACT

State and Federal Laws

Guidelines for Selecting and Using Pesticides

Protecting Our Groundwater

Keeping Pesticides Out of Groundwater and Surface Water

Protecting Non-target Organisms

Potential for Pesticide Resistance

The Development of Resistance

Resistance Management

Notifying Neighbors

Review Questions

CHAPTER 3: APPLICATION EQUIPMENT

Methods of Application

Types of Sprayers

Parts of a Sprayer

Tanks

Agitators

Pumps

Strainers

Hoses

Pressure Regulators

Pressure Gauge

Nozzles

Operation and Maintenance of Sprayers

Before Spraying

During Spraying

After Spraying

Granular Applications

Field Operations

Global Positioning System and Geographical Information System

Review Questions

CHAPTER 4: CALIBRATION

Introduction

Calibration of Sprayers

Variables that Determine the Spray Rate

Precalibration Check of Nozzle Output

Spray Pattern Uniformity

Broadcast Sprayer Calibration

Amount of Pesticide to Add to Tank

Granular Applicator Calibration

Review Questions

CHAPTER 5: INSECT MANAGEMENT

Growth and Development

Considerations for Pest Management

Insect Pests of Asparagus

Asparagus beetles

Asparagus miner

Cutworms

Insect Pests of Carrots

Aster leafhopper

Carrot weevil

Insect Pests of Celery

Aster leafhopper and carrot weevil

Green peach aphid and sunflower aphid

Celery looper and cabbage looper

Tarnished plant bug

Variegated cutworm

Insect Pests of Cucurbits

Aphids

Cucumber beetles

Squash bug

Insect Pests of Cole Crops

Imported cabbagewonn

Cabbage looper

Diamondback moth

Cabbage maggots

Insect Pests of Corn (Sweet)

Corn flea beetle

European corn borer

Corn earworm

Fall armyworm

Insect Pests of Onions

Onion maggot

Onion thrips

Insect Pests of Potatoes

Colorado potato beetle

Potato leafhopper

Green peach aphid and potato aphid

Insect Pests of Snap Beans

Potato leafhoppers

Tarnished plant bug

European corn borer

Insect Pests of Tomatoes

Colorado potato beetle

Tomato hornworm

Tomato fruitworm

General Vegetable Insect Pests

Seedcorn maggot

Review Questions

CHAPTER G: WEED MANAGEMENT

Development Stages

Life Cycles of Weeds

Common Weeds in Michigan

Grass and Grasslike Weeds

Broadleaf Weeds

Weed Control

Cultural Control

Mechanical Control

Chemical Control

Types of Herbicides

Preplant Herbicide Soil Applications and Incorporation

Preemergence Herbicide Applications

Postemergence Herbicide Applications

Herbicide Carryover

Herbicide Combinations

Herbicide Additives (Adjuvants)

Herbicide Compatibility Problems

Review Questions

CHAPTER 7: DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Fungi

Bacteria

Viruses

Disease Triangle

Disease Cycle

Disease Management

Cultural Control

Biological Control

Chemical Control

Diseases of Asparagus

Rust

Purple spot

Fusarium wilt and crown rot

Diseases of Carrots

Aster yellows

Alternaria leaf spot

Cercospora leaf spot

Damping off

Diseases of Celery

Aster yellows

Septoria leaf blight

Bacterial leaf blight

Fusarium yellows

Diseases of Cole Crops

Black leg

Black rot

Alternaria leaf spot

Clubroot

Downy mildew

Diseases of Corn

Common rust

Corn smut

Stewart’s wilt

Diseases of Cucurbits

Alternaria leaf spot

Mosaic viruses

Powdery mildew

Phytophthora root, crown, and fruit rot

Diseases of Onions

Purple blotch

Downy mildew

Smut

Botrytis leaf blight

Diseases of Potatoes

Early blight

Late blight

Fusarium dry rot

Common scab

Black scurf/stem canker

Diseases of Snap Beans

Fusarium root rot

White mold

Halo blight

Diseases of Tomatoes

Early blight

Septoria leaf spot

Anthracnose

Bacterial spot

Review Questions

CHAPTER 8: NEMATODE MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Plant-parasitic Nematodes

Nematodes of Importance in Vegetable Production

Northern Root-knot Nematode

Lesion Nematode

Cyst Nematode

Stem and Bulb Nematode

Common Needle Nematode

Pin Nematode

Sampling Nematode Populations

Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes

Review Questions

APPENDIX A: Answers to Review Questions

APPENDIX B: Conversion Tables

APPENDIX C: Glossary

APPENDIX D: Selected Bibliography

Pesticide Emergency Information

APPENDIX E: Crop-destroying Pests 

 

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