National Pesticide Applicator Certification Core Manual (E3009)

National Pesticide Applicator Certification Core Manual (E3009)

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INTRODUCTION

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL

This manual is intended as a study guide for preparing to take the National Pesticide Applicator Certification Core Exam that was developed jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pest Management Regulatory Agency of Canada. Check with the pesticide regulatory agency within your individual state, tribe, territory, or federal department/agency to determine whether this manual prepares you for commercial or private applicator certification or recertification or registered technician status. This manual satisfies the basic applicator training requirements of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). More specific pest management information and pesticide terminology are covered in category specific manuals.

The National Core Exam is based on information found in this manual. The table of contents helps you identify important topics and understand how they relate to one another through the organization of headings and subheadings. You may also check the index for key words and concepts. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives that help you focus on what you should learn from the chapter. Questions on the certification exam pertain directly to these learning objectives. As you prepare for the exam, read each chapter and answer the review questions located at the end. These questions are not on the certification exam. They are provided to help you prepare for the exam. The answers to the review questions are found in Appendix A, and a sample test is found in Appendix E.

Other appendices, including a glossary, provide supplemental information that help you understand the topics covered in the chapters. Terms in bold type throughout the manual are defined either within the text or in the glossary.

This certification manual benefits both you and the general public. By learning how to handle pesticides correctly, you will be able to protect yourself, others, and the environment from pesticide misuse. For further information, visit: http://www.epa.gov and select “Pesticides.”

CHAPTER 1 PEST MANAGEMENT

Pest Control Over the Years

Pest Recognition

Ways to Identify Pests

Characteristic Damage

Pest Management Methods

Biological Control

Mechanical Control

Cultivation

Exclusion

Trapping

Cultural Control

Cultural Practices

Sanitation

Physical/Environmental Modification

Host Resistance or Genetic Control

Chemical Controls

Regulatory Pest Control

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Why Practice IPM?

Components of IPM

1. Identify the Pest and Understand its Biology

2. Monitor the Pest to be Managed

3. Develop the Pest Management Goal

4. Implement the Integrated Pest Management Program

5. Record and Evaluate Results

Effectiveness of Pest Management Programs

Pesticide Resistance

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 2 FEDERAL PESTICIDE LAWS

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

Pesticide Registration

Pesticide Reregistration

Tolerances

Violative Acts and Penalties

Penalties

Civil Penalties

Criminal Penalties

Other Federal Laws and Regulations

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)

Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)

Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Federal Record-keeping Requirements

Application Records

Maintaining Training Records

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 3 PESTICIDE LABELING

EPA Approval of Pesticide Labeling

The Label

Background of the Label

Toxicity and Toxicological Tests

Efficacy or Performance Tests

Degradation, Mobility, and Residue Tests

Effects on Wildlife and the Environment

Types of Pesticide Registration

Section 3 Registrations

Special Local Need Registrations

Emergency Exemptions

Minimum-risk Pesticides

When to Read the Pesticide Label

Parts of the Label

Trade, Brand, or Product Name

Ingredient Statement

Use Classification Statement

Type of Pesticide

Net Contents

Name and Address of Manufacturer

Emergency Telephone Number

Registration Numbers

Establishment Number

Signal Words and Symbols

Precautionary Statements

Routes of Entry Statements

Specific Action Statements

Protective Clothing and Equipment Statements

Other Precautionary Statements

Statement of Practical Treatment

Environmental Hazards

Special Toxicity Statements

General Environmental Statements

Physical or Chemical Hazards

Agricultural Use Requirements

Restricted-entry Intervals ( REI)

Non-agricultural Use Requirements

Storage and Disposal

Directions for Use

Material Safety Data Sheets

Development of the MSDS

Components of the MSDS

Chemical Product Identification

Physical and Chemical Properties

Fire and Explosion Hazards

Toxicological Information/Human Health Data

Cholinesterase Inhibition

Regulatory Levels and Classification

Personal Protection Recommendations

Additional Information

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 4 PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS

An Overview of the Formulation Process

Solution

Suspension

Emulsion

Liquid Formulations

Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC or E)

Solutions (S)

Ready-to-use Low-concentrate Solutions (RTU)

Ultra-low Volume (ULV)

Invert Emulsions

Flowables (F)/Liquids (L)

Aerosols (A)

Ready-to-use Aerosols

Formulations for Smoke or Fog Generators

Liquid Baits

Dry or Solid Formulations

Dusts (D)

Tracking Powders

Baits (B)

Pastes, Gels, and Other Injectable Baits

Granules (G)

Pellets (P or PS)

Wettable Powders (WP or W)

Soluble Powders (SP or WSP)

Water-dispersible Granules (WDG) or Dry Flowables (DF)

Other Formulations

Microencapsulated Materials

Water-soluble Packets

Attractants

Impregnates

Repellents

Animal Systemics

Pesticide/Fertilizer Combinations

Fumigants

Pesticide Mixtures

Incompatibility

Adjuvants

Types of Adjuvants

Surfactants

Stickers

Extenders

Plant Penetrants

Compatibility Agents

Buffers or pH Modifiers

Drift Control Additives

Defoaming Agents

Thickeners

How to Choose the Right Adjuvant

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 5 PESTICIDE HAZARDS AND FIRST AID

Toxicity, Exposure, and Hazard

Harmful Effects of Pesticides

Contact Effects

Systemic Effects

Allergic Effects

Exposure—How Pesticides Enter the Body

Skin or Dermal Route

Eyes

Inhalation Route

Oral Route

Product Toxicity and Health Concerns

Acute Toxicity

Signal Words and Skull & Crossbones Symbol

Chronic Toxicity

Delayed Effects

Symptom Recognition

Cholinesterase Inhibition

Cholinesterase Monitoring

First Aid for Pesticide Poisoning

General First Aid

Pesticide on the Skin

Pesticide in the Eye

Inhaled Pesticide

Pesticide in the Mouth or Swallowed

Antidotes

Heat Stress

Symptoms of Heat Stress

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 6 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Chemical-resistant Clothing

Protect Your Skin

Work Clothes

Coveralls

Chemical-resistant Suit

Chemical-resistant Apron

Gloves and Footwear

Hats

Protect Your Eyes

Protect Your Respiratory Tract

Respirators

Use Respirators Properly

Maintaining Personal Protective Equipment

Disposables

Reusables

Washing PPE

Maintaining Eyewear and Respirators

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 7 PESTICIDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT

The Environment

Pesticide Characteristics

Solubility

Adsorption

Persistence

Pesticide Degradation

Volatility

How Pesticides Move in the Environment

Movement in Air

Movement in Water

Movement on or in Objects, Plants, or Animals

Preventing Pesticide Drift

Spray Drift

Temperature Inversions

Vapor Drift

Particle Drift (Dust Drift)

Applicator Responsibility

Sources of Water Contamination

Pesticide Contamination of Surface Water

Pesticide Contamination of Groundwater

Leaching

Soil Properties

Preventing Surface Water and Groundwater Contamination

Preventing Pesticide Effects to Sensitive Areas and Non-target Organisms

Sensitive Areas

Pesticide Effects on Non-target Organisms

Non-target Plants

Bees and Other Beneficial Insects

Fish, Wildlife, and Livestock

Protecting Endangered Species

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 8 TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE, AND SECURITY

Transportation

Transport Vehicle

Vehicle Operator

Other Safety Precautions

Transportation Security

Pesticide Storage

Secure the Site

Prevent Water Damage

Control the Temperature

Provide Adequate Lighting

Use Non-porous Materials

Maintain the Storage Site

Keep Labels Legible

Store Pesticide Containers Safely

Look for Damage

Note Shelf Life of Pesticides

Follow These Safety Tips

Isolate Waste Products

Pesticide Site Security

Benefits of Security Efforts

Risk Assessment

Employee Training and Security Awareness

Evaluating Pesticide Security

Steps for Preventing Security Problems

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 9 EMERGENCY OR INCIDENT RESPONSE

Emergency Response Planning

Fires

Precautions to Reduce Fire Hazards

Pesticide Spills

Control the Spill

Contain the Spill or Leak

Clean Up the Spill

Prevent Spills

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 10 PLANNING THE PESTICIDE APPLICATION

Selecting the Pesticide

Reviewing the Pesticide Label

Compatibility of Pesticides

Conducting a Compatibility Test

Making Tank Mixes

Safe Mixing and Loading Practices

Select an Appropriate Mixing/Loading Area

Protect Water Sources

Select Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Opening Containers

Measuring

Transferring Pesticides

Cleaning and Disposing of Pesticide Containers

Container Rinsing Procedures

Applying Pesticides Correctly

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Application Procedures

After Mixing, Loading, and Application

Cleaning Procedures

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 11 PESTICIDE APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Application Methods

Safety Systems

Closed Mixing and Loading Systems

Mechanical Systems

Water-soluble Packaging

Enclosed Cabs

Pesticide Containment Systems

Application Equipment

Sprayers

Sprayer Components

Granular Applicators

Other Application Equipment

Equipment Calibration

Calculating Areas

Calculating the Application Rate

Techniques for Minimizing Drift

Summary

Review Questions

CHAPTER 12 PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT

Supervision

Pesticide Security and Supervision

Public and Customer Communications

How to Answer Consumer Questions

Your Professional Image

Summary

Review Questions

APPENDICES

A. Answers to Review Questions

B. Glossary

C. Conversions & Calculations

Pesticide Calculations

Mixing Soluble and Wettable Powders

Mixing Liquid Formulaions

Square Feet vs. Acre Mixing

D. Additional Federal Pesticide Laws & Federal Record-keeping Requirements

Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

Pesticide Handlers

Agricultural Workers

Field Sanitation Standard

Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA)

Hazard Communications Standard (HCS)

Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA Title III)

Emergency Planning

Emergency Release Notification

Penalties

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Federal Aviation Administration

Federal Trade Commission Act

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Federal Aviation Administration

Federal Trade Commission Act

E. Practice Exam

F. Selected Pesticide References

G. Pesticide-related Resources

EPA Regional Pesticide Program Offices

Index 

 

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