Fruit Crop Pest Management: Commercial Applicators Guide Category 1C (E2891)

Fruit Crop Pest Management: Commercial Applicators Guide Category 1C (E2891)

This bulletin covers the management and control of common pests in tree fruit — including apples, cherries, peaches, pears, plums and nuts — and small fruit — including blueberries, grapes, raspberries and strawberries

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INTRODUCTION

How to Use This Manual

This manual contains the information needed to become a certified commercial applicator in Category 1C, Fruit Crop Pest Management. This manual is intended for use in combination with the Pesticide Applicator Core Training Manual (Extension bulletin E-2195), available through the Michigan State University Bulletin Office. However, this manual would also be useful to anyone interested in learning more about fruit pest management

Category 1C, Fruit Crop Pest Management, covers the management and control of common pests in tree fruit — including apples, cherries, peaches, pears, plums and nuts — and small fruit — including blueberries, grapes, raspberries and strawberries. The manual presents basic scientific information on pest life cycles and emphasizes protecting non-target organisms and preventing the development of resistance in pests.

The Category 1C certification exam is based on information found in this booklet. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives that help you focus on what you should understand from each chapter. The table of contents helps you identify important topics and understand how they relate to one another through the organization of headings and subheadings. As you prepare for the exam, read each chapter and answer the review questions. These questions are not on the certification exam but are provided to help you prepare for the exam. Questions on the exam will pertain directly to the learning objectives.

The appendices and glossary, including an answer key (Appendix A), at the end of this manual provide supplemental information that will help you understand the topics covered in the chapters. Terms throughout the manual text that are bold or italicized can also be found in the glossary.

This certification manual benefits the applicator and the general public. By learning how to handle pesticides correctly, applicators can protect themselves, others and the environment from pesticide misuse. For more specific information on how to become a certified applicator in Michigan, refer to the beginning of the core manual (E- 2195) or the Michigan Department of Agriculture’s Web site, , or call the MDA at 1-800-292-3939.

CHAPTER 1: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Monitoring (Scouting)

Thresholds

Forecasting

Management Strategies

Cultural Practices

Biological Control

Mating Disruption

Chemical Control

Evaluation

Review Questions

CHAPTER 2: MINIMIZING PESTICIDE IMPACT

State and Federal Laws

Guidelines for Selecting and Using Pesticides

Protecting Our Groundwater

Protecting Non-target Organisms

Potential for Pesticide Resistance

Notifying Neighbors

Review Questions

CHAPTER 3: APPLICATION EQUIPMENT

Foliar Applications

Ground Applications

Parts of a Sprayer

Tanks

Agitators

Pumps

Strainers

Hoses

Pressure Regulators

Pressure Gauges

Nozzles

Operation and Maintenance of Sprayers

Before Spraying

During Spraying

After Spraying

Review Questions

CHAPTER 4: SPRAYING FRUIT

Background: Types of Orchard Pesticide Applications

Calculations for Dilute Applications

How much pesticide is needed for a dilute application?

Calculations for Concentrate Spraying

How much water is needed for a concentrate application?

How much pesticide is needed for a concentrate application?

Examples for Review

Spraying in Different Seasons and in Different Orchards

Sprayer Calibration

Variables That Determine Spray Rate

Review Questions

CHAPTER 5: INSECT MANAGEMENT

Growth and Development

Considerations for Pest Management

Tree Fruit

Apple Maggot

Borers

Cherry Fruit Flies

Codling Moth

Green Fruitworms

Mites

Obliquebanded Leafroller

Oriental Fruit Moth

Pear Psylla

Plum Curculio

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer

White Apple Leafhopper

Blueberries

Plum Curculio

Blueberry Maggot

Cranberry Fruitworm

Cherry Fruitworm

Japanese Beetle

Grapes

Climbing Cutworms

Grape Berry Moth

Grape Leafhopper

Raspberries

Aphids

Raspberry Cane Borer

Strawberries

Mites

Strawberry Clipper

Tarnished Plant Bug

Review Questions

CHAPTER 6: WEED MANAGEMENT

Life Cycles of Weeds

Common Weeds in Michigan

Integrated Weed Control

Cultural Control

Mechanical Control

Chemical Control

Evaluating the Results

Herbicide Issues

Herbicide Carryover and Injury

Herbicide Combinations

Herbicide Additives (Adjuvants)

Herbicide Compatibility Problems

Review Questions

CHAPTER 7: DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Fungi

Bacteria

Viruses

Disease Triangle

Disease Cycle

Disease Management

Diseases of Pome Fruit

Fire Blight of Apples and Pears

Diseases of Apples

Apple Scab

Powdery Mildew

Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck

Diseases of Pear

Pear Scab

Diseases of Stone Fruit

Brown Rot

Diseases of Cherry

Alternaria Fruit Rot

Bacterial Canker

Cherry Leaf Spot

Diseases of Peach

Bacterial Spot

Peach Leaf Curl

Diseases of Plum

Black Knot

Diseases of Blueberry

Anthracnose

Phomopsis Canker and Twig Blight

Shoestring Disease

Mummy Berry

Contents Diseases of Grape

Black Rot

Powdery Mildew

Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot

Diseases of Raspberry

Anthracnose

Botrytis Fruit Rot or Gray Mold

Orange Rust

Spur Blight

Diseases of Strawberry

Botrytis Fruit Rot or Gray Mold

Black Root Rot

Leather Rot

Review Questions

CHAPTER 8: NEMATODE MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Plant-parasitic Nematodes

Sampling Nematode Populations

Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes

Nematodes of Importance in Fruit Production

Lesion Nematode

Dagger Nematode

Ring Nematode

Northern Root-knot Nematode

Review Questions

CHAPTER 9: VERTEBRATE MANAGEMENT

Birds

Voles

White-tailed Deer

Review Questions

APPENDIX A: ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS

APPENDIX B: CONVERSION TABLES

APPENDIX C: SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX D: GLOSSARY

APPENDIX E: COLOR PICTURES 

 

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