Forest Pest Management: Guide for Commercial Applicators - Category 2 (E2045)

Forest Pest Management: Guide for Commercial Applicators - Category 2 (E2045)

A guide to forest pest management for Commercial Applicators -- Category 2.

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Introduction

How to Use This Manual

This manual contains the information needed to become a certified commercial applicator in Category 2, Forest Pest Management. This manual is intended for use in combination with the Pesticide Applicator Core Training Manual (Extension Bulletin E-2195), available through the Michigan State University Bulletin Office. However, this manual would also be useful to anyone interested in learning more about forest pest management.

Category 2, Forest Pest Management, covers the management and control of common forest pests in natural stands, plantations, Christmas tree operations, nurseries, and seed orchards. Basic scientific information is presented on forest ecosystems and pest life cycles. Protecting non-target organisms and preventing the development of resistance in pests are also emphasized.

The Category 2 certification exam will be based on information found in this booklet. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives that will help you focus on what you should get out of each chapter. The table of contents will help you identify important topics and Forest Pest Management v understand how they relate to one another through the organization of headings and subheadings. As you prepare for the exam, read each chapter and answer the review questions located at the end. These questions are not on the certification exam. They are provided to help you prepare for the exam. Questions on the exam will pertain directly to the learning objectives.

The appendices and glossary, including an answer key (Appendix A), at the end of this manual provide supplemental information that will help you understand the topics covered in the chapters. Terms throughout the manual text that are bold and italicized can also be found in the glossary.

This certification manual benefits the applicator and the general public. By learning how to handle pesticides correctly, applicators will be able to protect themselves, others, and the environment from pesticide misuse. For more specific information on how to become a certified applicator in Michigan, refer to the beginning of the core manual (E-2195) or to the Michigan Department of Agriculture’s Web site.

CHAPTER 1: PRINCIPLES OF PEST MANAGEMENT

Integrated Pest Management

Monitoring

Identification

Threshold Level

Management Strategy

Evaluation

Review Questions

CHAPTER 2: MINIMIZING PESTICIDE IMPACT

Guidelines for Selection and Use of Pesticides

FIFRA and the Use of Pesticides for Pests Not on the Label

Protecting Our Groundwater

Keeping Pesticides Out of Groundwater and Surface Water

Protecting Non-target Organisms

Potential for Pesticide Resistance

The Development of Resistance

Resistance Management

Notifying Neighbors

Review Questions

CHAPTER 3: APPLICATION METHODS AND EQUIPMENT

Methods of Application

Special Application Methods

Components of Sprayers

Tanks

Agitators

Pumps

Strainers

Hoses

Pressure Regulators

Pressure Gauge

Nozzles

Sprayers

Hydraulic sprayers

Low-pressure sprayers

High-pressure sprayers

Backpack sprayers

Miscellaneous Equipment

Operation and Maintenance of Sprayers

Before Spraying

During Spraying

After Spraying

Granular Applicators

Drop-through Spreaders

Rotary Spreaders

Review Questions

CHAPTER 4: CALIBRATION

Introduction

Calibration of Sprayers

Variables that Determine the Spray Rate

Nozzle Flow Rate

Ground Speed of the Sprayer

Precalibration Check of Nozzle Output

Spray Pattern Uniformity

Broadcast Sprayer Calibration

Amount of Pesticide to Add to the Tank

Hand Sprayer Calibration

Liquid Application on a Percentage Basis

Granular Applicator Calibration

Drop-through Spreaders

Rotary Spreaders

Conversion Tables

Review Questions

CHAPTER 5: FOREST TYPES IN MICHIGAN

An Overview of Michigan Forestry and Forest Pest Management

Forest Types in Michigan

Maple-Beech

Aspen-Birch

Oak-Hickory

Elm-Ash-Soft Maple

Pine

Review Questions

CHAPTER 6: DISEASE MANAGEMENT

What Causes Tree Disease?

Objectives of Disease Management

Timing of Disease Control Measures

Forest Disease Management

Disease Surveys

Some Important Forest Tree Diseases in Michigan

Canker Diseases-Various Fungi

Decay in Northern Hardwoods

Hypoxylon Canker

Armillaria (Shoestring) Root Rot

Oak Wilt

Dutch Elm Disease

Scleroderris Canker

White Pine Blister Rust

Intensive Disease Management Situations

Christmas Tree Plantations

Lophodermium Needlecast

Sphaeropsis (Diplodia) Blight

Phythophthora Root Rot

Swiss Needlecast

Rhabodoline Needlecast

Rhizosphaera Needlecast

Forest Nurseries

Seed Orchards

Pest Resistance to Fungicides

Review Questions

CHAPTER 7: INSECT MANAGEMENT

Economic Thresholds

Non-chemical Management

Natural Controls

Applied Controls

Chemical Management

Some Common Forest Insect Pests in Michigan

Forest Tent Caterpillar

Gypsy Moth

Two-lined Chestnut Borer

European Elm Bark Beetle

Native Elm Bark Beetle

White Pine Weevil

Jack Pine Budworm

Intensive Insect Management Situations

Christmas Tree Plantations

Pine Needle Scale

Pine Root Collar Weevil

Zimmerman Pine Moth

Balsam Gall Midge

Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid

Eastern Spruce Gall Adelgid

Spruce Spider Mites

Forest Nurseries

Seed Orchards

Pest Resistance to Insecticides

Review Questions

CHAPTER 8: WEED MANAGEMENT

Forest Weed Control

Objectives of Forest Weed Management

Integrated Control

Cultural Control

Mechanical Control

Chemical Control

Evaluating the Results

Christmas Tree Plantation Weed Control

Objectives of Weed Control

Herbicide Characteristics

Selectivity or Specificity

Mode of Action

Residual Nature

Formulation

Factors Influencing Herbicide Effectiveness

Application Rate

Equipment Calibration

Application Method

Targeted Vegetation

Soil-site Characteristics

Weather Conditions

Resistance to Herbicides

Review Questions

CHAPTER 9: VERTEBRATE PESTS

Wild Vertebrate Populations and Problems

Damage Control Techniques

Repellents

Physical Barriers

Cultural and Silvicultural Practices

Toxic Baits

Trapping and Shooting

Biological Controls

Dog Restraint Systems

Beaver Dam Modification

Desirability of a Specific Control Prescription

Review Questions

CHAPTER 10: LAWS AND REGULATIONS

Prevention, Detection, and Regulation of Exotic Pests

Prevention of Exotic Pest Invasion

Detection Systems

Regulating Pests

Optimizing Mandated Regulatory Sprays

What Pests are Regulated in Michigan?

Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

WPS Requirements

Information

Protection

Mitigation

Other Regulations

Review Questions

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: Answers Appendix

APPENDIX B: Glossary

APPENDIX C: Bibliography

APPENDIX D: Resources

APPENDIX E: Forest Pests

 

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