Field Crop Pest Management: Commercial Pesticide Manual - Category 1A (E2034)

Field Crop Pest Management: Commercial Pesticide Manual - Category 1A (E2034)

This manual contains the information needed to become a certified commercial applicator in Category 1A, Field Crops. This manual is intended for use in combination with the Pesticide Applicator Core Training Manual.

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Introduction

How to Use This Manual

This manual contains the information needed to become a certified commercial applicator in Category 1A, Field Crops. This manual is intended for use in combination with the Pesticide Applicator Core Training Manual (Extension bulletin E-2195), available through the Michigan State University Bulletin Office. However, this manual would also be useful to anyone interested in learning more about field crop pest management.

Category 1A, Field Crops, covers the management and control of common pests in alfalfa, corn, dry beans, soybeans, small grains, and sugarbeets. The manual presents basic scientific information on pest life cycles and emphasizes protecting non-target organisms and preventing the development of resistance in pests.

The Category 1A certification exam is based on information found in this booklet. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives that help you focus on what you should understand from each chapter. The table of contents helps you identify important topics and understand how they relate to one another through the organization of headings and subheadings. As you prepare for the Field Crop Pest Management v exam, read each chapter and answer the review questions. These questions are not on the certification exam. They are provided to help you prepare for the exam. Questions on the exam will pertain directly to the learning objectives.

The appendices and glossary, including an answer key (Appendix A), at the end of this manual provide supplemental information that will help you understand the topics covered in the chapters. Terms throughout the manual text that are bold and italicized can also be found in the glossary.

This certification manual benefits the applicator and the general public. By learning how to handle pesticides correctly, applicators can protect themselves, others, and the environment from pesticide misuse. For more specific information on how to become a certified applicator in Michigan, refer to the beginning of the core manual (E- 2195) or the Michigan Department of Agriculture’s Web site, . or call the MDA at 1-800-292-3939.

CHAPTER 1: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Integrated Pest Management

Field Scouting, Monitoring

Economic Thresholds

Control Strategies

Cultural Control

Biological Control

Chemical Control

Review Questions

CHAPTER 2: MINIMIZING PESTICIDE IMPACT

State and Federal Laws

Guidelines for Selection and Use of Pesticides

Protecting Our Groundwater

Keeping Pesticides Out of Groundwater and Surface Water

Protecting Non-target Organisms

Potential for Pesticide Resistance

The Development of Resistance

Resistance Management

Notifying Neighbors

Review Questions

CHAPTER 3: APPLICATION EQUIPMENT

Methods of Application

Types of Sprayers

Parts of a Sprayer

Tanks

Agitators

Pumps

Strainers

Hoses

Pressure Regulators

Pressure Gauge

Nozzles

Operation and Maintenance of Sprayers

Before Spraying

During Spraying

After Spraying

Granular Applications

Field Operations

Global Positioning System and Geographical Information System

Review Questions

CHAPTER 4: CALIBRATION

Introduction

Calibration of Sprayers

Variables that Determine the Spray Rate

Precalibration Check of Nozzle Output

Spray Pattern Uniformity

Broadcast Sprayer Calibration

Amount of Pesticide to Add to Tank

Granular Applicator Calibration

Review Questions

CHAPTER 5: INSECT MANAGEMENT

Growth and Development

Considerations for Pest Management

Insect Pests of Alfalfa

Alfulfa weevil

Potato leafhopper

Insect Pests of Corn

Armyworm

Fall armyworm

Corn flea beetle

Corn rootworm

Western corn rootworm damage in first-year corn

European corn borer

Insect Pests of Dry Beans

Tarnished plant bug

Potato leafhopper

Mexican bean beetle

Insect Pests of Small Grains

Aphids

Cereal leaf beetle

Insect Pests of Soybeans

Defoliators

Bean leaf beetle

Green cloverworm

Japanese beetle

Two spotted spider mite

Soybean Aphid

Insect Pests of Sugarbeets

Sugarbeet root aphid

Spinach leaf miner

General Insect Pests

Cutworms

Grubs

Wireworms

Seedcorn maggot

Review Questions

CHAPTER 8: WEED MANAGEMENT

Development Stages

Life Cycle of Weeds

Common Weeds in Michigan

Grass and Grasslike Weeds

Broadleaf Weeds

Weed Control

Cultural Control

Mechanical Control

Chemical Control

Types of Herbicides

Preplant Herbicide Soil Applications and Incorporation

Pre emergence Herbicide Applications

Postemergence Herbicide Applications

Herbicide Carryover

Herbicide Combinations

Herbicide Additives (Adjuvants)

Herbicide Compatibility Problems

Review Questions

CHAPTER 7: DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Fungi

Bacteria

Viruses

Disease Triangle

Disease Cycle

Disease Management

Cultural Control

Biological Control

Chemical Control

Diseases of Alfalfa

Phytophthora Root Rot

Anthracnose

Crown Rot

Diseases of Corn

Corn Gray Leaf Spot

Common Rust

Gibberella Stalk and Ear Rot

Corn Smut

Diseases of Dry Beans

Dry Bean Halo Blight

Common Blight

Fusarium Root Rot

Diseases of Soybeans

Phytophthora Stem and Root Rot

White Mold

Septoria Brown Spot

Diseases of Sugarbeets

Cercospora Leaf Spot

Black Root

Rhizoctonia Root Rot

Diseases of Wheat and Small Grains

Wheat Scab

Wheat Yellow Mosaic Virus

Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

Leaf Rust

General Control Practices for All Wheat and Small Grain Diseases

Review Questions

CHAPTER 8: NEMATODE MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Nematode Management

Soybean Cyst Nematode

Sugarbeet Cyst Nematode

Corn Needle Nematode

Root-lesion Nematode

Northern Root-Knot Nematode

Review Questions

APPENDIX A: Answers to Review Questions

APPENDIX B: Conversion Tables

APPENDIX C: Glossary

APPENDIX D: Selected Bibliography

APPENDIX E: Crop-destroying Pests 

 

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