Pesticides registered for chestnut production in Michigan

Advice for chestnut farmers about deciphering pesticide labels for use in production.

Various species of chestnut are found in Michigan. Chestnut species are found naturally in the landscape, in green spaces as ornamentals and are also planted in orchards for nut production. In this article, Michigan State University Extension will aim to address those planted for commercial nut production and help chestnut farmers decipher the legality of various pesticides labeled for use.

Pesticide labels can be difficult to read, particularly when dealing with a multipurpose tree like the chestnut. Chestnut is a general word that describes two types of completely unrelated trees in the genera Castanea and Aesculus. The true Castanea are the edible chestnuts and the common types are American chestnuts, Chinese chestnuts, Japanese chestnuts and European chestnuts. It also contains a small bush type chestnut called the chinquapin. They are usually found as orchard trees but do exist as ornamentals. The nuts, when found in the very sharp spine-covered burs, can be delicious.

On-the-other-hand, Aesculus is the name of a group of trees that produce inedible nuts, generally termed horse chestnuts or buckeyes, depending on the species. These trees have been planted as ornamentals throughout the United States. Horse chestnuts and buckeyes are toxic and have a bad taste if eaten, which stops most people from accidentally consuming them. The information contained in this article refers to the Castanea type or edible chestnuts.

There are two types of pesticide labels that can apply to chestnut trees: Agriculture/Crop Protection labels for trees from which nuts will be harvested for consumption, and Turf and Ornamental/Non-Crop labels that apply to ornamental trees from which nuts will not be harvested for consumption. Specific products may be labeled for chestnut trees that fall into one or both of these categories, but for the legal use of a pesticide on chestnuts for nut production, it must have an Agriculture/Crop Protection label. The practices surrounding proper use may vary greatly between these two label types and growers should read and closely follow the Agriculture/Crop Protection label carefully. Growers are encouraged to reference the Crop Data Management Systems website (www.cdms.net) to retrieve the latest labels and determine if the product is meant for food or nonfood crop application.

For more information on how to read a pesticide label, refer to the Penn State Extension article, Reading a Pesticide Label. Penn State Extension also offers this factsheet in Spanish, along with additional resources regarding pesticide safety on their website.

Chestnuts belong to Crop Group 14 (tree nuts), as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Crop groups have helped streamline the pesticide registration and labeling process and are based on similar biological traits, edible parts, dietary consumption, geographical distribution, economic importance and growing practices. For example, the tree nut crop group contains other edible nuts including almonds and pecans. Tolerance information for a given pesticide is based on research in a representative crop and may be extended to similar crops within the same crop group. This has allowed for a substantial increase in the accessibility of pesticides to specialty crop producers.

Below is a list of the pesticides labeled for use in production chestnut orchards as of October 2012. This document is meant as a starting point; keep in mind that pesticide labels and registrations are constantly changing and always use the label as the final authority on proper use. Table A lists the fungicides and bactericides listed for use on production chestnuts. Table B lists the insecticides and miticides labeled for use on chestnuts.

Table A. Fungicides and bactericides labeled for chestnut production, 2012.

Activity

Active ingredient (FRAC fungicide group)

Products labeled

Single site

Fluopyram (7)

Luna Privelege

Propiconazole (3)

Amtide Propiconazole 41.8% EC, Bumper 41.8 EC, Fitness, Orbit, Propi-Star EC, Propicure 3.6F, Propimax EC, Tilt, Topaz

Trifloxystrobin (11)

Gem 500 SC

Tebuconazole (3)

Tebuzol 45 DF, Toledo 45 WP, Amtide Tebuconazole 45WDG

Azoxystrobin (11)

Abound

Premixes

Sulfur (M2); Tebuconazole (3)

Unicorn

Azoxystrobin (11) + Difenoconazole (3)

Quadris Top

Azoxystrobin (11) + Propiconazole (3)

QUILT XCEL

Boscalid (7) + Pyraclostrobin (11)

Pristine

Fluopyram (7) + Tebuconazole (3)

Luna Experience

Fluopyram (7) + Trifloxystrobin (11)

Luna Sensation

Potassium based defense inducers

Phosphorous acid, mono- and dibasic sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts (33)

Phostrol

Potassium phosphate; Potassium phosphite (NC1)

Phorcephite

Potassium phosphite (NC1)

Fosphite, Fungi-Phite, Rampart

Broad spectrum

1,3-dichloropropene (NA2)

Telone EC

Biopesticides

Neem oil (NC1)

Trilogy*

Trichoderma asperellum (ICC 012); Trichoderma gamsii (ICC 080) (NA2)

Tenet WP*

Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 (44)

Serenade ASO*, Serenade Max*

Clove Oil; Rosemary Oil; Thyme Oil (NC2)

Sporatec*

Extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis (P5)

Regalia*

1.   Not classified as belonging to a particular mode of action.
2.   Not listed or classified by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC).
*OMRI approved for organic production.

Table B. Insecticides and miticides labeled for chestnut production, 2012.

Chemical class (IRAC insecticide group)

Active ingredient

Products labeled

Multisite, Organophosphates (1B)

Malathion

Cheminova Malathion 57%, Malathion 57 EC, Malathion 8 Aquamal

Phosmet

Imidan 70W

Multisite inhibitor (8B)

1,3-dichloropropene + Chloropicrin**

Telone C-17, Telone C-35, Telone II

Avermectins (6)

Abamectin**

Epi-mek 0.15 EC, Reaper 0.15 EC, Reaper Advance, Abacus, Abba 0.15EC, Abba Ultra,   Abamectin, Agri-Mek SC, Agri-Mek S.15

Emamectin benzoate**

Proclaim

Carbamates (1A)

Carbaryl

Carbaryl 4L, Sevin 4F, Sevin 80 WSP, Sevin 80S, Sevin XLR Plus, Sevin SL

Diacylhydrazines (18)

Methoxyfenozide

Intrepid 2F

Tebufenozide

Confirm 2F

Diamides (28)

Chlorantraniliprole

Altacor

Flubendiamide

Belt SC

Diamides (28) + Pyrethroids (3)

Chlorantraniliprole + Lambdacyhalothrin**

Voliam Xpress

METI (21A)

Fenpyroximate

Portal

Pyridaben

Nexter

Pyrethroids (3)

Bifenthrin**

Bifenture 10DF, Bifenture EC, Brigade WSB, Fanfare 2 EC, Sniper

Beta-cyfluthrin**

Baythroid XL

Cyfluthrin**

Renounce 20 WP, Tombstone, Tombstone Helios

Gamma-cyhalothrin**

Declare, Proaxis

Lambdacyhalothrin**

Grizzly Z, Kaiso 24WG, Lambda T, Lambda-CY EC, Lambdastar, Lambdastar 1CS, Lamcap,   Nufarm Lambda-Cyhalothrin 1EC, Paradigm, Province, Silencer, Taiga Z, Warrior II with Zeon, Warrior with Zeon, Willowood Lambda-CY 1EC

Pyrethrins*

Pyganic EC 1.4 II, Pyganic EC 5.0 II

Zeta-cypermethrin**

Mustang, Mustang Max, Mustang Maxx, Respect, Respect EC

Deltamethrin**

Delta Gold

Fenpropathrin**

Danitol 2.4EC Spray

Pyrethroid (3) + Pyrethroid (3)

Bifenthrin** + Zeta-cypermethrin**

Hero EW, Steed

Pyrethroids (3) + Neonicitinoids (4A)

Cyfluthrin** + Imidacloprid

Leverage 2.7

Lambdacyhalothrin**; Thiamethoxam

Endigo ZC

Beta-cyfluthrin** + Imidacloprid

Leverage 360

Bifenthrin** + Imidacloprid

Brigadier, Swagger

Neonicitinoids (4A)

Imidacloprid

Admire Flex 4, Admire Pro, Advise 2F, Amtide Imidacloprid 2F, Agri Star MACHO 2.0   FL, Agri Star MACHO 4.0, Couraze 2F, Couraze 4, Couraze 4F, Mana Alias 4F, Monatna 2F, Monatana 4F, Nuprid 1.6F, Nuprid 2F, Nuprid 2SC, Nuprid 4.6F Pro, Nuprid 4F Max, Pasada 1.6F, Pasada 75WSB, Provado 1.6F, Sherpa, Trimax Pro, Widow, Wrangler

Thiamethoxam

Flagship 25WG3

Acetamiprid

Assail 30SG, Assail 70WP

Clothianidin1

Belay

Spinosyns (5)

Spinosad*

Entrust, Entrust SC, GF-120 NF, SpinTor 2SC

Spinetoram

Delegate WG

Tetramic  acids (23)

Spirodiclofen

Envidor 2SC

Spirotetramat

Movento

Biopesticides

Bacillus thuringiensis (11A)

Dipel DF*

Myrothecium verrucaria*2

Ditera DF

Peppermint   Oil; Rosemary Oil*2

Ecotec

Potassium salts of fatty acids*2

M-Pede

Chromobacterium subtsugae2

Grandevo*

Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioide2

Requiem 25EC, Requiem EC

Kaolin2

Surround WP

Insect Growth Regulators or Inhibitors

Etoxazole

Zeal Miticide 1

Hexythiazox (10A)

Onager, Savey 50 DF

Pyriproxyfen (7C)

Esteem 0.86EC, Esteem 35WP, Pitch 0.86EC

Diflubenzuron (15)

Dimilin 2L

Azadirachtin (IGR)

Aza-Direct*, Azatin XL, Ecozin Plus 1.2% ME*, Neemazad 1% EC*, Neemix 4.5*, Azaguard*

Not classified or Unknown

Acequinocyl

Kanemite 15 SC

Bifenazate

Acramite 50WS

*   OMRI approved for organic production.
**   Products containing these active ingredients are classified as restricted use pesticides and require the applicator to retain a pesticide applicator license.
1.   Supplemental label subject to annual renewal.
2.   Not classified by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC).
3.   For use on nonbearing trees only.