Irrigation scheduling for the end of the season
Maximizing profit and returns on resource invested can be dependent on the last irrigation application.
The question often comes at the end of the irrigation season, “When can I stop irrigating?” The factors that enter into this decision are grain and forages prices and fuel costs. Turning off the irrigation water too soon could lower yields or reduce test weights. Irrigation beyond what the crops need wastes resources: time, energy, and money.
The wet, early season growing conditions of 2015 complicate the last irrigation decision, with parts of some fields potentially maturing weeks later than the rest. Often the delayed portions of the fields have low yield potential for reasons other than lack of water and if they represent less than a quarter of the irrigated area, they do not justify additional irrigation beyond that of the whole field. In some fields, clay hills and low areas have remained wet and may have excessively shallow root systems that can result in crop stress days sooner than the rest of the field, but may not justify additional irrigation of the whole field.
Late August - early September conditions in most years alleviate late season irrigation scheduling questions. The typical crop water use drops as average rainfall increases and late season irrigation in many years is obviously not needed. A little work at some type of irrigation scheduling or crop monitoring can alleviate the fear of stopping too soon without risking un-needed use of resources or expenses.
Late season water use, termed evapotranspiration (E.T.) lowers significantly near the end of maturity. Soybean plants showing their first yellow pod will have E.T. of one tenth of an inch per day for a day that reaches into the mid 80 degree temperatures. Corn at dent stage will have an E.T. of 0.14 inch per day for a day that reaches into the mid 80 degree temperatures. Daily temperatures that are ten degrees higher or lower than the mid 80’s will have E.T. that is .02 higher or lower than the norm, respectively.
Michigan State University Extension’s Enviro-Weather has over 60 stations that post reference E.T. daily on their websites or they can text or E-mail the post reference E.T. estimates each morning to growers who sign-up. Indiana’s I-Climate website posts daily reference E.T. estimates for each of Purdue’s PAC centers. The daily reference E.T. estimates are for 6 inch well-watered grass. A calculation within a computerized irrigation scheduling program converts the reference number into a daily removal for your crop and stage of maturity. For a quick and simple estimate of crop water E.T., use the corn or soybean growth chart to find a multiplier to change reference E.T. into an estimate of daily crop E.T.for your field.
The goal of the soybean irrigator should be to maintain at least 50 percent of his available soil water holding capacity for soybeans until most pods yellow. Corn producers trying to maintain test weight in dry late summer conditions should maintain at least 50 percent of the available soil water holding capacity until the crop reaches black layer. In most situations minimal amounts of water are needed to achieve these goals. In the last few weeks of the season, soybeans will use less than .04 inches per day and corn less than .06 inches per day allowing a half inch of rain or irrigation to last a week or more.
One simple irrigation scheduling method used to aid in late season decisions is to monitor soil moisture. A soil auger probe sample from 12 inches below the surface in the root zone should still have moisture present as indicated by a loose ball formed from the sandy loam soil. Soils that form a tight ball show an even higher soil moisture level that could carry a crop for a few more days. If more information is needed contact me at 269-467-5511.