First generation codling moth management options
Consider these larvicide options for controlling first generation codling moth larvae.
First generation codling moth biofix occurred between May 22 and June 1 for most parts of the State. Therefore, egg hatch has already begun or will happen soon. Control strategies based on ovicide materials were covered in First generation codling moth emergence begins, but there are many larvicide options listed below that can now be considered.
The vast majority of insecticides used for codling moth control are aimed at killing larvae (Table 1).
Table 1. Chemical class, activity and timing of insecticides used for codling moth control.
|Compound Trade Name||Chemical Class||Life-stage Activity||Optimal Spray Timing for CM||Mite Flaring Potential|
|Guthion, Imidan||Organophosphates||Eggs, Larvae, Adults||Biofix + 250 DD||L - M|
|Asana, Warrior, Danitol, Decis,Baythroid XL||Pyrethroids||Eggs, Larvae, Adults||Biofix + 250 DD||H|
|Rimon||IGR(chitin inhibitor)||Eggs, Larvae||Biofix + 100 DDResidue under eggs|
|Delegate||Spinosyn||Larvae||Biofix + 250 DD|
|Altacor, Belt||Diamide||Eggs, Larvae||Biofix + 200-250 DD|
|Assail, Calypso, Clutch, Belay||Neonicotinoid||Larvae, Eggs & Adults (limited)||Biofix + 200-250 DDResidue over eggs||M*|
|Proclaim||Avermectin||Larvae||Biofix + 200-250 DD||L|
|Granulovirus||Biopesticide||Eggs, Larvae||Biofix + 250 DDResidue over eggs||L|
|Voliam flexi||Diamide + Neonic.||Eggs, Larvae||Biofix + 200-250 DDResidue over eggs|
|Tourismo||Diamide + IGR||Eggs, Larvae||Biofix + 200-250 DD|
|Leverage||Pyrethroid + Neonic.||Eggs, Larvae, Adults||Biofix + 200-250 DD|
* May cause mite flaring in combination with carbaryl or pythrethroids that kill predacious mites.
Delegate (spinetoram) is a new compound in the same insecticide class as SpinTor (spinosad). The active ingredients of both Spinosyn compounds are similar in that they are waste metabolites produced during the growth of bacteria. A major difference between the two AI’s, however, is that spinetoram is much more lethal to codling moth larvae. In small-plot and on-farm trials, Delegate has provided excellent control of both first and second generation codling moth. It kills larvae as they hatch and begin feeding.
Altacor (rynaxypyr) and Belt (flubendiamide) belong to a new class of Diamide insecticides that work on the insect by activating ryanodine receptors, thus depleting internal calcium and preventing muscle contraction. In small-plot and on-farm trials, Altacor and Belt have provided excellent control of both first and second generation codling moth.
The neonicotinoids, Assail and Calypso, will provide very good control of codling moth with a residual action of 10 to 14 days. Proper timing and coverage is required to achieve control. These compounds are primarily larvicidal, but also have some ovicidal activity when applied over the top of the egg. Clutch and Belay, neonicotinoids containing clothianidin, are registered for use in pome fruits and are broad-spectrum materials for targeting codling moth, but research trials have indicated that Clutch and Belay are not as effective as Assail or Calypso for second generation codling moth.
Proclaim is a codling moth control material in the Avermectin class of insecticides. It has provided good control of first generation codling moth in trials.
There are several new pre-mix insecticides labeled for codling moth control, including Voliam flexi (thiamethoxam + chlorantraniliprole), Tourismo (flubendiamide/buprofezin), and Leverage (imidacloprid + cyfluthrin) that combine two active ingredients as pre-mix formulated compounds. When these are used for codling moth control, care must be taken not to use a product in the following generation that is in the same insecticide class as either of the pre-mix active ingredients.
Codling moth granulosis virus
Growers should not overlook granulosis virus in their codling moth management program. This is a naturally occurring virus that goes by the scientific name of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV). Both of the two commercially available products, Cyd-X and Carpovirusine, are effective. Optimal use of the virus is against young larvae before they penetrate the fruit. The best way to target young larvae is to have the virus present on the surface of the eggs when they begin to hatch (biofix + 250 GDD). Hatching codling moth larvae will ingest the virus as they consume their eggshells.
Drs. Wise and Gut’s work is funded in part by MSU‘s AgBioResearch.