Biopesticides for use in greenhouses in the U.S.

There are 40 registered biopesticide active ingredients for use in greenhouses in the U.S.

In Part 1 of this article, “What is a biopesticide?” we reviewed the three categories of biopesticides in the U.S.: biochemical, microbials and plant-incorporated protectants. There are 299 biopesticide active ingredients registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but only 40 of those are labeled for use in greenhouses (see table at the end).

The table includes the active ingredients of registered biopesticides (excluding plant growth regulators) for greenhouse use in the U.S., classification as either microbial or biochemical, re-entry interval, pre-harvest interval, organic status and target pests.

According to our list, 32 of those contain biochemicals and 26 of those contain microbial materials. Seventy-six percent of these biopesticides have a 4-hour re-entry interval or less and 55 percent are labeled for organic production.

Keys to success

Although biopesticides have several advantages, they generally do not work as quickly as chemical pesticides. They are generally used where pest prevention or suppression is emphasized and often in combination with other approaches.

The following tips might help growers who are considering using biopesticides to manage insects or disease pests in their operations.

  • Start clean. Practice good plant hygiene, use clean media and inspect and remove contaminated plant materials coming into your operation. Use biopesticides early in the pest cycle or preventatively based on the label.
  • Rotate. Rotate biopesticides with conventional products to provide additional modes of action, control multiple pests and limit pests’ ability to develop resistance. Tank-mix products as needed.
  • Select the right product. Follow label instructions, use registered products to prevent legal problems and consult with agrochemical representatives and distributers, Michigan State University Extension personnel and others experienced with horticultural pest management.

Following these guidelines will help greenhouse growers manage pests while meeting demands for ornamental and edible crops with reduced pesticide residue.

Biopesticides for greenhouse use in the United States

Trade name(s)

Active ingredient (strain)

Type*

REI
(hr)

Target(s)

Stirrup-M

Farnesol

Biochemical

0

Tetranychid mites

Dominus

Allyl isothiocyanate

Biochemical

n/a**

Broad spectrum soil biofumigant

Axxe

Ammonium nonanoate

Biochemical

24

Broad spectrum herbicide

Agroneem, AzaGuard, Azatrol

Azadirachtin

Biochemical

4

Broad spectrum insecticide, nematicide

Azera

Azadirachtin + pyrethrins

Biochemical

12

Broad spectrum insecticide, nematicide

Sonata

Bacillus pumilis (QST 2808)

Microbial

4

Broad-spectrum fungicide

Cease, Companion, Serenade

Bacillus subtilis (QST 713, GB03, MBI 600)

Microbial

0-4

Broad-spectrum fungicide

beetleGONE!

Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae

Microbial

4

Beetles

Agree WG

B. thuringiensis aizawai (GC-91)

Microbial

4

Caterpillars

Biobit, DiPel, Condor,Crymax

B. thuringiensis kurstaki (ABTS-351, EG2348)

Microbial

4

Caterpillars

BMP 144/ Aquabac

B. thuringiensis israelensis BMP 144

Microbial

0

Mosquitoes

Botanigard, BioCeres, Naturalis

Beauveria bassiana (GHA, ATCC 74040)

Microbial

4

Whiteflies, aphids, thrips, plant bugs, some beetles

Vegol

Canola oil

Biochemical

4

Broad spectrum insecticide

Dazitol

Capsaicin and related capsaicinoids

Biochemical

4

Broad spectrum insecticide, nematicide and fungicide

Clandosan

Chitin

Biochemical

4

Nematicide

EF400

Clove, rosemary, peppermint

Biochemical

0

Broad spectrum fungicide

Contans WG

Coniothyrium minitans (CON/M/91-08)

Microbial

4

Fungicide (Sclerotinia spp.)

Badge X2

Copper hydroxide + copper oxychloride

Biochemical **

24

GH

Broad spectrum fungicide and bactericide

Cueva

Copper octanoate

Biochemical *

4

Broad spectrum fungicide and bactericide

SoilGard

Gliocladium virens (GL-21)

Microbial

0

Preventative fungicide

Spear

GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1a

Biochemical

4

Thrips, whitefly, spider mites

Messenger T&O, ProAct

Harpin proteins

Biochemical

4

N/A (plant health promoter)

Peradigm

Hydrogen peroxide

Biochemical **

0-2

Algicide and fungicide

Sluggo

Iron phosphate

Biochemical **

0

Molluscicide

Feather Duster

Lemongrass oil

Biochemical

0

Bird repellent

PFR-97

Paecilomyces fumosoroseus

(Apopka 97)

Microbial

4

Whiteflies, aphids, thrips, leafminers

Scythe

Pelargonic acid

Biochemical

12

Broad spectrum herbicide

Armicarb, Kaligreen

Potassium bicarbonate

Biochemical **

4

Broad spectrum foliar fungicide

Des-X

Potassium salts of fatty acids

Biochemical

12

Broad spectrum foliar insecticide

Sil-MATRIX

Potassium silicate

Biochemical

4

Broad spectrum fungicide, miticide, insecticide

Acaritouch

Propyleneglycol monolaurate

Biochemical

4

Tetranychid mites

AtEze

Pseudomonas chlororaphis (63-28)

Microbial

24

Preventative fungicide

PyGanic

Pyrethrins

Biochemical

12

Broad spectrum insecticide

Sporatec

Rosemary, thyme, and clove oils

Biochemical

0

Broad spectrum fungicide

Enstar

S-Kinoprene

Biochemical **

4

Broad spectrum insecticide

Avachem

Sorbitol octanoate

Biochemical

24

Insecticide/miticide

Golden Pest Spray Oil

Soybean oil

Biochemical

4

Mites, scale, whiteflies, mealybugs

Entrust, Seduce

Spinosad

Microbial

4

Caterpillars, leafminers, thrips and red imported fire ants

Actinovate SP

Streptomyces lydicus (WYEC 108)

Microbial

1

Broad spectrum fungicide

SucraShield

Sucrose octanoate

Biochemical

48

Insecticide/miticide

BacStop

Thyme, clove, cinnamon, peppermint, and garlic oils

Biochemical

0

Bactericide, fungicide

PlantShield, RootShield

Trichoderma harzianum, (Riafi strain KRL-AG2, G-41)

Microbial

0-4

Preventative fungicide

Spexit

Spodoptera exigua multinucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) strain by BV-0004

Microbial

4

Beet armyworm

Helicovex Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus strain BV-0003 Microbial 4 Corn earworm

* Biochemicals are registered as a biochemical. Microbials includes living preparations and/or derived materials.
** Applied 10 days after planting.

Thank you to Steven Arthurs, assistant research scientist at the Department of Entomology at Texas A & M University, for his co-authorship.

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